Tag Archives: Mayur Resources

PNG politicians push coal as Pacific islanders rail against climate change

 Catherine Wilson | Mongabay | 12 March 2019

  • Politicians in Papua New Guinea have thrown their support behind a plan to power the country’s development through coal.
  • The plan to establish coal mines and power plants gained prominence following a publicity tour hosted by rugby stars and sponsored by Australian mining and energy firm Mayur.
  • Mayur’s proposal for a project combining coal, solar and biomass energy remains stalled, pending approval by the country’s newly restructured energy utility.
  • The project faces opposition both locally and in other Pacific island states, where climate change-driven sea level rises pose a serious threat.

Politicians in Papua New Guinea are ratcheting up their support for a new foray into coal mining and power generation, even as neighboring states call for a global reduction in carbon emissions to stave off a catastrophic rise in the sea level.

PNG’s mining minister, Johnson Tuke, recently hailed the prospect of a new coal industry to boost government revenue and public access to electricity, following visits to coal mines and power stations in Australia. PNG has no coal mines or coal-fired power plants; in Australia, 60 percent of grid electricity comes from burning coal.

But the burning of coal is one of the largest contributors to human-driven climate change, setting PNG up on a collision course with smaller Pacific island states, such as Kiribati and Tuvalu, where rising sea levels threaten coastal communities and undermine water and food security. Leaders of the Pacific Islands Forum — which comprises 18 states, including PNG, Australia, Kiribati and Tuvalu, among others — emphasized during their annual summit in Nauru last year that “climate change remains the single greatest threat to the livelihoods, security and well-being of the peoples of the Pacific.”

“This move by the PNG government is a total negation of the plight that the small island states in the Pacific are facing due to the negative impacts of climate change,” says Tafue Lusama, a climate change activist and leader of the Tuvalu Christian Church. “For one of our own brother countries in the Pacific to turn its back on our struggles is [an issue] that needs serious pleading and dialogue.”

A young boy looks at the mud, contaminated by salt water, that used to be a garden on Iangain Island in Papua New Guinea. Pacific Island leaders have identified sea level rise as one of the primary threats facing the region. Image © Greenpeace / Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert.

Australian extractive and energy company Mayur Resources has plans to construct a mixed coal power station in the eastern PNG port city of Lae, in the province of Morobe. Mayur, which has a major stake in coal exploration in neighboring Gulf province, signed a memorandum of agreement last October with the Lae city authority and the Morobe government to build an “Enviro Energy Park.” The project, which aims to use solar energy, coal and renewable biomass sourced within the country to generate electricity, has received environmental approval and is backed by Mining Minister Tuke, Energy Minister Sam Basil, and Lae MP John Rosso.

Mayur says coal is needed to help provide cheap, reliable electricity, and will help boost living standards and economic growth.

“We, as a 100 percent PNG industrial minerals and energy-focused business, are passionate about injecting all forms of energy that are cheaper and better environmentally than what PNG currently has, that also generates local industry and displaces imported energy fuels, such as heavy fuel oils and diesel, that drain PNG’s wealth,” Paul Mulder, Mayur Resources’ managing director, tells Mongabay.

Although the country produces and exports natural gas, refined and crude petroleum accounted for 11.2 percent of PNG’s total imports in 2017, costing the country nearly $400 million.

“If PNG ever wants to get to Australia’s level of prosperity, it will need to install 20,000 megawatts,” Mulder says. “PNG is not even managing 100 megawatts being installed per year. PNG political leaders have to somehow explain that it will take PNG 200 years from today to achieve the same living standard as Australia. This does not even cater for the huge population growth over the next two centuries which PNG will have… I am sure there is not one politician, not one business owner or one resident who wants to wait that long.”

Rain clouds in the mountains along the coast south of Lae. Image © Markus Mauthe / Greenpeace

PNG has one of the world’s lowest electrification rates: only about 13 percent of its people have access to mains electricity. Rugged forest-covered mountain ranges and scattered islands make grid-based power distribution a logistical challenge. This lack of access to electricity, widespread in rural areas where more than 80 percent of the country’s 8.2 million people live, contributes to the country’s low human development; an estimated 40 percent of people live below the poverty line.

Nevertheless, the PNG government is yet to issue any coal mining licenses and the proposed Enviro Energy Park remains in limbo without a power purchasing contract.

Mayur was invited by state-owned PNG Power Ltd. to submit a proposal in 2015, but the proposal has yet to be assessed by the power company’s board. PNG Power underwent a major restructuring in 2018, and with the new management came new priorities. In February, PNG Power’s acting managing director, Carolyn Blacklock, told the Post Courier newspaper that the utility now plans to increase the use of renewable energy without coal, and that a competitive, public bidding process will be required before any new projects are commissioned.

“It is not a planned activity of PNG Power and is not being considered,’ Blacklock said of Mayur’s 2015 proposal.

“Mayur has been waiting three years since its PPA [power purchasing agreement] submission,” Mulder said. “It could have already built the two 30 MW units of power generation on the Western Tidal Basin in Lae, providing businesses with extremely cheap steam and generating very reliable power with solar, coal and biomass that would already be saving PNG Power tens of millions of kina.”

Pita Meanke leans against a palm tree as high waves surge past a sea wall and into his family’s property in Betio Village on Kirabati’s Tarawa Island. PNG’s push for coal power has raised opposition from other Pacific island countries who fear inundation due to rising sea levels. Image © Greenpeace / Jeremy Sutton-Hibbert

There could be changes in the country’s power industry with a new National Energy Bill currently being finalized. If passed, this would mandate a National Energy Authority to enforce safety and quality standards in the industry, encourage more power companies to operate, and increase competitive electricity pricing.

But there is still opposition from civil society, even after Mayur arranged for Australian rugby legends Sam Thaiday and Darren Lockyer (who is employed as the company’s business affairs manager), to visit PNG earlier this year and talk up the coal industry. Local environmental group Nogat Coal PNG and landowners in Morobe province’s Markham Valley, the site of a potential biomass energy project, say coal has no place in the country.

The Australian-backed case for coal faces wider opposition. Many leaders across the Pacific view the developed nation’s refusal to transition away from coal and reduce its carbon emissions — which reached a record high of nearly 530 million tonnes in March last year — as contributing to their potential demise due to climate change.

“As I always say in my advocacy works around the globe, and especially to big industrialized countries, your actions and decisions now will catch up with you sooner than later,” Lusama says. “For what we are facing today will only accelerate according to such ignorant decisions, and by the time you feel the wrath of the devastating impacts of climate change, it will be far too late to do anything.”

The mouth of the Bairaman River, where it meets the sea in East New Britain province. Image © Paul Hilton/Greenpeace

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K400M Lae Coal Plant In Jeopardy

Benny Geteng | Post Courier | February 7, 2019

THE proposed K400 million coal-fired power plant to be built in Lae is in jeopardy as PNG Power Limited is not considering the power option put forward by developer Mayur Resources.

PPL acting managing director Carolyn Blacklock, when responding to questions posed by the Post-Courier in regards to the power purchasing agreement sent by Mayur to PPL and how the PPL is handling the proposal at present, said PNG Power is not considering the Mayur proposal.

This means the bid to have the coal power plant in Lae is in limbo since the PPA approval will grant Mayur the green light to go ahead with the project construction phase.

Ms Blacklock said PNG Power has a clear IPP Policy that supports competitive bidding of planned generation, transmission and distribution investments.

“It is not a planned activity of PNG Power and is not being considered,” she said.

Mayur managing director Paul Mulder said PNG Power is under obligation to assess the power purchasing agreement (PPA).

“The PPL board has the obligation to assess our bid and make recommendations this year,” he said.

Energy minister Sam Basil had earlier written to PPL board chairman Peter Nupiri in October to request PPL board to assess Mayur’s proposal since their bid was solicited by PNG Power through a letter by Chris Bais (PPL director strategic planning and business development) in 2015, granting Mayur leave to send a PPA proposal for assessment.

Mayur Resources submitted a proposal that is still yet to be assessed by the PPL board.

This now contradicts Ms Blacklock’s response since according to Mr Basil’s letter, until the review of Mayur’s proposal is assessed, then he will accept the PPL’s board decision.

The coal power plant in Lae is to be spearheaded by Mayur Resources Limited and is expected to utilise coal seams extracted from the seas of Gulf province and is anticipated to generate revenue for Lae City Authority and the Morobe provincial government.

Mr Basil, Lae MP John Rosso and Morobe governor Ginson Saonu have backed the proposed project to be built in Lae .

It is expected to generate K4m annually to the provincial coffers, among other benefit

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Coal Power not a Favorable Option

Stret Pasin:  Good news but I hope she has locked in her support as she will come in for attack from the coal proponents and their cronies. They will try to get rid of her if she does not follow their line.

Adelaide Kari | EMTV | February 5, 2019

Mayur Resource when speaking to EMTV News stated that they had submitted a Power Purchase Agreement proposal to PNG Power and was confident they had tick all the boxes.

Today, PNG Power Acting Managing Director, Carolyn Blacklock, commenting on the proposal of coal, said the company is looking towards renewable energy.

PNG Power confirmed they had received the Power purchase agreement for Mayur Resources but were not confident that the proposal showed a commitment that would last 25 years.

Blacklock also stated that PNG Power was looking more towards hydro and solar, and coal power would not be a part of PPL Plan.

The Minister for Energy, Sam Basil, an open supporter of the Coal Power station, has publicly said the ball was now in PNG Power’s corner. With PNG Power weary of the idea of a coal power station, what does this mean for Mayur’s prospect of a coal power station?

But the prospect of a Coal Power station may still be pushed with the National Energy Bill that is currently being drafted, exact specifics of this touted National Energy Bill have not been given out to the public just yet. The Minister for Energy, Sam Basil, stated it will allow other energy companies, provincial governments and landowners to enter into agreements to supply energy without approval from the State-owned PNG Power.

Northern Governor, Gary Juffa, who has openly gone against the idea of coal mining in PNG, says the National Energy Bill needs to be structured properly, and should be based on renewable energy. Governor Juffa stated that the bill will allow provincial government to create revenue and is a positive to the bill.

The argument for cheaper vs cleaner energy has become the source of a debate that will continue until the National Energy Bill is tabled in Parliament, and even that information, is still unclear.

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‘Scandal’: NSW coal power plants will kill thousands before they close

AGL’s Bayswater coal-fired power station in the Hunter Valley, one of five in NSW that have been tied to health impacts including early deaths. CREDIT: GLEN MCCURTAYNE

Peter Hannam | Sydney Morning Herald 21 November 2018

Air pollution from NSW’s five coal-fired power stations carry a “substantial health burden”, including leading to an estimated 279 deaths a year with thousands more to come before they close, a new study has found.

Ben Ewald, a GP and public health lecturer at the University of Newcastle, said the impact – including 233 low-birth weight babies and 369 people developing Type 2 diabetes annually – was much worse than he expected.

“Literally hundreds of people are dying preventable deaths every year because of coal-fired power,” Dr Ewald said, adding, it was “nothing short of a public health scandal” that 3429 more people will die before the plants reach scheduled closure dates.

The study, commissioned by Environmental Justice Australia, examined the effects of fine particle pollution with a diameter of 2.5 microns or smaller emitted by the plants. Coal combustion is one of NSW’s biggest sources of such pollution, with prevailing winds often dragging the particles – the smallest of which can enter lungs and the bloodstream – over major population centres.

While filters catch most of the pollution at the plants – AGL’s Liddell and Bayswater, Delta’s Vales Point, EnergyAustralia’s Mt Piper and Origin’s Eraring – they emit secondary particles that most other nations ban.

“Australian power stations are operating without the modern pollution control technologies and they’ve been allowed to get away with it for years and years,” Dr Eward said. “That wouldn’t be the case anywhere in Europe or North America, or even in most of Asia.”

The Environment Protection Authority is now reviewing the licences of three: Vales Point, Mt Piper and Eraring. By the time the last of the five is due to shut in 2042, the number of expected low-weight births would be 3029, with new onset diabetes put at 4412, the study found.

Unhealthy power

Guy Marks, principal investigator at the Centre for Air Pollution, Energy and Health Research and a professor at UNSW, said Dr Ewald’s research was “certainly at the cutting edge of this work”.

“He’s made a series of assumptions that are plausible,” Professor Marks said. “It’s a useful way to try to bring to the government’s attention to the price there is to pay from high-emissions intensity [generation].”

The impact tally is likely to be conservative because it only focused on three health outcomes caused by long-term fine particle air pollution. It did not include health damage from short-term pollution spikes such as asthma and exacerbated lung disease, nor the effects of ozone, mercury and other toxin exposures, the report said.

‘Further scrutiny’

A NSW Health spokeswoman said the agency had conducted similar research but identified lower premature deaths. “The discrepancy in the number of power station-related loss of life appears to be largely due to the assessment of the amount of power station-related PM2.5 that people are exposed to.”

Dr Ewald’s approach, particularly estimates of the proportion of sulphur-dioxide and nitrous oxides in Sydney from power stations, “requires further scrutiny before firm conclusions can be drawn about its validity”, she said.

Major energy firms rejected the report, with EnergyAustralia calling it “inaccurate” and yet to be formally peer-reviewed.

“[W]e strongly reject the implication that our operations pose unacceptable risks to human health,” a spokesman said, adding the paper was “needlessly upsetting for the community”, a spokesman said.

An AGL spokesman said the company was committed to improving its plants performance, and said both complied “with environmental laws and environment protection licence conditions set by the [EPA].”

‘Raining down’

But community groups said tougher controls were well overdue.

“It’s weak legislation” that had allowed high pollution levels to continue, Julie Favell who convenes the Lithgow Environment Group, said. “It’s shocking to think that it’s gone on for so long.”

Sue Winn, whose family lives within a few kilometres of Vales Point and includes several asthma sufferers, said they had long had pollution “raining down” on them.

“There’s got to be poor health outcomes by being exposed to this day in, day out and night in, night out,” Ms Winn, secretary of the Mannering Park Progress Association, said.

Greens’ bill

Greens environment spokeswoman Cate Faehrmann has introduced a bill into the NSW parliament to limit the amount of toxic air pollution from coal-fired power stations in the state.

Dr Ewald’s report “should send shockwaves through the government”, she said.

“It is unacceptable that toxic emissions from Australia’s power stations are multiple times higher than what is allowed in the EU, the US and China,” Ms Faehrmann said. “We hope the government and Labor will put people’s health ahead of the profits of AGL and Origin Energy and support the bill when it is debated on Thursday.”

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Aussie Coal Use Impresses Tuke

Benny Geteng | Post Courier | February 1, 2019

MINING Minister Johnson Tuke is impressed with coal-powered technology used in Australia and has indicated strong backing of the Lae coal-powered plant project.

Mr Tuke’s trip to one of Australia’s coal mines in January assured him that the similar technology that will be used by Mayur Resources for the K400 million proposed project for Lae will be beneficial.

He said globally, coal is a resource of immense proportions and PNG has never mined coal, while neighbouring countries, especially Australia and Indonesia, continue to reap the rewards of this commodity by exporting and empowering their people with far higher living standards than what we have in PNG, while using inferior coal quality compared with our PNG coal.

“This coal has remained in the ground and until recent years this was the same story for gas, which now is a thriving LNG sector,” Mr Tuke said.

“If you look at Australia, they are benefiting by creating large revenue from coal exports and domestically, coal still provides more than 60 per cent of all their electricity generation. Coal is forecast to be Australia’s largest export earner at AUD$58.1 billion (K137.5bn) in 2018-19, this one commodity is two times PNG’s GDP for the entire country per year.

“That’s K138 billion and while we may not have this volume to export or use internally, even imagine if a coal industry could add K1-2 billion to government revenue. Gulf Province is endowed with extensive far cleaner coal seams than what Australia uses and you can even touch it at the surface.

“I saw houses around the power plant, I saw clean water, I saw abundant fish life in the cooling water channel leading into Lake Macquarie, I saw trees and parks, and no black smoke, only very minor clean filtered steam from the power plant.”

He said Vales Point (NSW, Australia) operating coal power plant produces 1330 megawatts, 2 two times bigger than PNG’s total installed electricity and that is 26 times bigger than what is proposed in Lae.

Mayur Resources managing director Paul Mulder said the proposed coal powered plant in Lae is similar and will rid Lae city of its blackout situation once given permission to supply power on the Ramu Grid.

He said power supply will be on 24 hours — 7 days a week, 100 per cent continuous supply for Lae city.

Mr Tuke said that people should not be blind to what is happening outside PNG in neighbouring countries.

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Rugby League stars’ promotion of coal in PNG questioned

Brisbane and Queensland rugby league player Sam Thaiday. Photo: PHOTOSPORT

Radio New Zealand | 23 January 2019 

Questions have been raised in Papua New Guinea over the visit by Australian rugby league stars to promote coal development in the country.

The Australian company Mayur Resources has an environmental permit to mine coal in PNG’s Gulf Province, and is proposing a coal-fired power plant in Lae.

It’s recently deployed a second former league star, Sam Thaiday, to PNG in a promotional capacity.

Former Australian captain Darren Lockyer is Mayur’s head of Business Affairs.

Christian Lohberger of Nogat Coal PNG, which opposes Mayur’s plans, said the league stars, and Lockyer in particular, are idolised in PNG.

“Even though they’re just footballers, when they talk and say stuff, people listen. So I guess it’s a smart move by Mayur to bring them on board. But I don’t know if it’s really ethical that they should be using Papua New Guineans’ love of rugby league to promote something that’s not really connected.”

Mr Lohberger said that the proposed plant would create significant pollution and cause harm and death to local communities.

However, PNG’s Minister for Energy Sam Basil is supporting the coal project, saying it would open up access to cheaper energy that has long been lacking in the country.

Mr Basil has voiced concern that the current power plant in Lae uses imported heavy fuel oil and is cost inefficient.

He said that PNG should explore as many local energy options as possible, given the country’s range of natural resources.

However the plant backers have not secured a local customer or off-taker for the power produced at the plant.

The main power supplier in the country, PNG Power, has been reluctant to buy electricity from coal sources.

Mr Lohberger said he understood PNG Power was waiting on a pending World Bank report on a comprehensive electricity generation cost strategy, which could affect a decision on linking up with Mayur’s plant.

“I would say with the way global trends are going, the surge in renewable energy, and the fall in prices of solar and wind and hydro, that any report that takes a look at power prices is not going to be favourable to coal,” he explained.

But global shifts away from investment in fossil fuels, due to pressing climate change issues, are not deterring the minister who has cited PNG’s neighbours’ energy policies.

Mr Basil said that with both Australia and Indonesia heavily reliant on coal power, PNG should not deprive itself of a home-grown asset.

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Mayur Resources brings in the Chinese

Mayur gets Chinese funding for development of Orokolo iron and zircon sand project in PNG

Paul Moore | International Mining | 7 January 2019

Mayur Resources Ltd announces that its 100% owned subsidiary MR Iron PNG Pte Ltd (MIPP) has signed a legally binding term sheet with China Titanium Resources Holdings Ltd (CTRH) relating to the development of Mayur’s Orokolo Bay Industrial Mineral Sands project in PNG’s Gulf Province with pilot scale bulk sampling planned to commence in Q3 of the 2019 calendar year.

The Orokolo Bay Project is proposed to be developed in two stages. Stage 1 is the Pilot Plant comprising the construction, commissioning and operation of a pilot scale bulk sample that is already environmentally permitted to produce up to 100,000 t of iron ore sands per annum (over a 2‐year period) principally for the purpose of providing test scale shipments of product to potential off takers, with the endeavour they will then sign legally binding long‐term offtake agreements for the Full‐Scale Plant.

Stage 2 is the Full Scale Plant. Subject to the outcomes of the Pilot Plant Bulk Samples including customer acceptance of product, obtaining the required permits and landowner consents for the Full‐Scale Operations, as well as the Definitive Feasibility Study, it is proposed to expand the capacity of the Pilot Plant to achieve total production capacity of 800 t/h run of mine (ROM) feed rate. In addition, a processing circuit is to be installed to separately produce construction sands and crude zircon concentrates (in separated form).

Pursuant to the Legally Binding Term Sheet, CTRH has agreed to provide up to $25 million in funding for the construction of the Pilot Plant and Full‐Scale Plant on the following terms:

a) CTRH to fund 50% of the Maximum Budget for the Stage 1 Pilot Plant that is to be agreed between the parties. MRL will provide the remaining 50% of the Maximum Budget for the Stage 1 Pilot Plant but may at its sole option defer payment of half (50%) of its funding obligation for the Stage 1 Pilot Plant, in which case CTRH will fund 75% of the Maximum Budget for the Stage 1 Pilot Plant. CTRH will be solely responsible for funding any expenditure in excess of the Maximum Budget that is required to construct the Stage 1 Pilot Plant.

b) Should the conditions precedent for proceeding to the Stage 2 Full Scale Plant be met CTRH will fund the capital expenditure for the Stage 2 Full Scale Operation subject to the total funding provided by CTRH for both the Stage 1 Pilot Plant and the Stage 2 Full Scale Operation not exceeding $25 million.

c) CTRH will receive a 2% equity interest in MIPP for each $1 million in funding contributed by CTRH, provided that CTRH’s total equity interest in MIPP is capped at 49%.

d) CTRH will be solely responsible for funding the operating costs of the Stage 1 Pilot Plant and the related bulk sampling program during the operation of the Stage 1 Pilot Plant.

e) Although it is considered extremely unlikely, to the extent that additional funding above $25 million is required for the construction of the Stage 2 Full Scale Project, MRL shall provide loans to

MIPP with those loans being repaid, on a priority basis, from the cash flows generated by MIPP from the operation of the Stage 2 Full Scale Plant.

This agreement has been successfully concluded following a number of years of discussions, site visits (PNG and China) and detailed due diligence by both parties. Paul Mulder Managing Director of Mayur Resources said “CTRH bring core operational capability in mining these types of projects, and in addition to providing development capital funding CTRH will also take on working capital and operational risk through the Orokolo Bay pilot plant phase while agreeing to take on funding responsibility up to $25 million and build the Stage 2 Full Scale Plant. This is a positive outcome for Mayur Shareholders where an external funding pathway has been secured whilst Mayur retains a 51% stake in the potential future economics of the $106 million NPV of the Orokolo Bay project as documented in the Pre‐Feasibility Study that was included in the Mayur Prospectus. MRL still also retains a 51% interest in the mineral sands exploration license portfolio that MIPP holds across the Gulf of Papua that offers the potential for further expansion projects. Having the operational expertise of CTRH, with their proven capability in low cost mining and quarrying, will assist Mayur in putting PNG on a fast track process to becoming a mineral sands exporter.”

He adds: “Bilateral ties will increase with Australia, Japan and China with multiple products coming from the mineral sands operation. Our focus is to bring employment, spin off business opportunities for the people of Orokolo Bay and work with the people to ensure there will be clarity in detail around what such an operation will mean. Now having secured an operating and funding partner we will progress the project alongside CTRH whilst progressing our National Building and Import displacement strategy for PNG.”

The legally binding term sheet is expected to be converted into definitive transaction documents before the end of January 2019. The Orokolo Bay project is extremely simple with no requirement

for chemical processing, grinding or tailings dams. The process involves simple near surface ripping and then sand extraction that is separated by gravity spirals and low intensity magnets (LIMS), with the vast majority of the sand being placed back from where it was taken, enabling rehabilitation to occur almost immediately after mining, leaving a minimal foot print.

CTRH ‘s Director Mr Chen Hui said: “As a strategic partner we are excited to develop the Papua New Guinea Industrial Mineral Sands operation together with Mayur, a team with great entrepreneurship and professionalism. We are confident that we will deliver Vanadium Titano Magnetite (VTM) and Construction Sands fit for the market demand at a low cost. We are also visioning for future downstream integrated steel production and expecting to bring long term value for our shareholders and the people of PNG. Having been to the site numerous times and having spent time in PNG to understand its provisions we are confident in the Provincial and State governments commitment to encouraging investment and diversifying the PNG economy. Very importantly we must see benefit go to the communities that we work in and as such will adopt a very inclusive management style. The intention of the Stage 1 pilot plant operations is to demonstrate to the international community that PNG can be taken seriously as a reliable, quality supplier of minerals that range from products for steelmaking, tiles, ceramics, concrete/cement, golf clubs, medical prothesis and smart phone screens.”

He adds: “Upon Stage 1 testing successfully gaining customer acceptance and Stage 2 Permits and Landowner consents being received, we have already committed to fund the development of Stage 2 full scale operation. The Governor of Gulf Province has been very supportive to provide new employment and job opportunities for the people of Orokolo Bay, and we are committed to localisation of human resources and will bring and transfer expertise and skills together with Mayur. CTRH and Mayur have already started ordering equipment for the Stage 1 trial plant and will further refine the definitive feasibility study (DFS) from the pilot plant findings that will inform the final Stage 2 Full Scale Plant. We will also second resources into MIPP to finalise the DFS while executing the Stage 1 pilot plant.”

Mulder concluded “We hope this success is just the first in a pipeline of other similar type mineral sands projects slated for the Gulf of Papua region, and moreover the replication time should be drastically reduced once this plant is up and running at Orokolo Bay.”

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